Quick Start

This page describes all you need to know to start using dependency injection with Airframe.


scala-index maven central

To use Airframe, add the following to your build.sbt:

libraryDependencies += "org.wvlet.airframe" %% "airframe" % "(version)"

And import wvlet.airframe._ in your Scala code:

import wvlet.airframe._


If you are using scalafmt for code formatting, add the following option to your .scalafmt.conf:

optIn.breaksInsideChains = true

This option enables writing each binding in a single line:

val d = newDesign


In Airframe, you can use two types of dependency injections: constructor injection or in-trait injection.

Constructor Injection

Constructor injection is the most natural form of injection. When session.build[A] is called, Airframe will find the primary constructor of A and its arguments, then creates a new instance of A by finding dependencies from a Design.

import wvlet.airframe._

class MyApp(val config:AppConfig)
case class AppConfig(appName:String)

// Define a design
val d = newDesign
  .bind[AppConfig].toInstance(AppConfig("Hello Airframe!"))

// Create MyApp. AppConfig instance defined in the design will be used.
// d.build[MyApp] will call new MyApp(AppConfig("Hello Airframe!")) to build a MyApp instance
d.build[MyApp]{ app: MyApp => 
  // Do something with app
// Session will be closed here

In-Trait Injection

In-trait injection with bind[X] is useful to create reusable modules. Note that this only works inside Scala traits:

import wvlet.airframe._

class Database(conn:Connection)
trait DatabaseService {
  val db = bind[Database]

val d = newDesign

  // Creates a new DatabaseService with ConnectionImpl
d.build[DatabaseService] { db: DatabaseService =>

// [DON'T DO THIS] You can't use bind[X] inside classes:
class A {
  val a = bind[B] // [Error] Because class A can't find the current session

The following examples show basic binding types available in Airframe:

val a = bind[A]          // Inject A as a singleton

import BindingExample._

// Constructor binding
val pc: P = bind[P] // Inject a singleton of P
                    // (Inject D1, D2 and D3)

// Provider bindings
val p0: P = bind { P() } // Inject P using the provider function (closure)
val p1: P = bind { d1:D1 => P(d1) } // Inject D1 to create P
val p2: P = bind { (d1:D1, d2:D2) => P(d1, d2) } // Inject D1 and D2 to create P
val p3: P = bind { (d1:D1, d2:D2, d3:D3) => P(d1, d2, d3) } // Inject D1, D2 and D3
val pd: P = bind { provider _ } // Inject D1, D2 and D3 to call a provider function

// Factory bindings can be used to override a part of the dependencies
val f1: D1 => P = bindFactory[D1 => P] // A factory to use a given D1 to generate P
val f2: (D1, D2) => P = bindFactory2[(D1, D2) => P] // A factory to use given D1 and D2

object BindingExample {
  case class P(d1:D1 = D1(), d2:D2 = D2(), d3:D3 = D3())
  def provider(d1:D1, d2:D2, d3:D3) : P = P(d1, d2, d3)

By default all injections generates singleton objects, which are available until the session closes.

If you need to create a new instance for each binding, use bindFactory[I => X].


To configure actual bindings, define object bindings using design:

import wvlet.airframe._

// If you define multiple bindings to the same type, the last one will be used.
val design: Design =
  newDesign                      // Create an empty design
  .bind[A].to[AImpl]             // Bind a class AImpl to A (Singleton)
  .bind[A].toInstanceOf[AImpl]   // Bind a class AImpl to A (Create a new instance each time)
  .bind[B].toInstance(new B(1))  // Bind a concrete instance to B (This instance will be a singleton)
  .bind[S].toSingleton           // S will be a singleton within the session
  .bind[ES].toEagerSingleton     // ES will be initialized as a singleton at session start time
  .bind[D1].toInstance(D1(1))    // Bind D1 to a concrete instance D1(1)
  .bind[D2].toInstance(D2(2))    // Bind D2 to a concrete instance D2(2)
  .bind[D3].toInstance(D3(3))    // Bind D3 to a concrete instance D3(3)
  .bind[P].toProvider{ d1:D1 => P(d1) } // Create a singleton P by resolving D1 from the design
  .bind[P].toProvider{ (d1:D1, d2:D2) => P(d1, d2) }  // Resolve D1 and D2
  .bind[P].toProvider{ provider _ }                   // Use the given function as a provider
  .bind[P].toInstanceProvider{ d1:D1 => P(d1) }       // Create a new instance using the provider function
  .bind[P].toEagerSingletonProvider{ d1:D1 => P(d1) } // Create an eager singleton using the provider function

If you define multiple bindings to the same type (e.g., P), the last binding will be used.

Design objects are immutable, so you can safely override bindings without modifying the original design:

val design: Design =
  newDesign.bind[A].to[B] // bind A to B

val newDesign: Design =
  design.bind[A].to[C] // Override binding for A

// design.newSession.build[A] -> produces B
// newDesign.newSession.build[A] -> produces C


To create instances, you need to create a Session from you Design:

val session = design.newSession
val a = session.build[A]
// do something with a

Session manages the life cycle of your objects and holds instances of singletons. These instances can be discarded after session.shutdown is called:

// Start a session
val session = design.newSession
try {
  val p = session.build[P]
  // do something with P
finally {

To simplify this session management, you can use Design.build[A] to start and shutdown a session automatically:

design.build[P]{ p:P => // session.start will be called, and a new instance of P will be created
  // do something with P
// session.shutdown will be called here

This pattern is useful since you usually need a single entry point for starting an application.

Life Cycle

Server side application often requires resource management (e.g., network connection, threads, etc.). Airframe has a built-in object life cycle manager to implement these hooks:

trait MyServerService {
  val service = bind[Server]
    .onInit( _.init )   // Called when the object is initialized
    .onInject(_.inject) // Called when the object is injected 
    .onStart(_.start)   // Called when session.start is called
    .beforeShutdown( _.notify) // Called right before all shutdown hook is called
                               // Useful for adding pre-shutdown step 
    .onShutdown( _.stop ) // Called when session.shutdown is called

trait Server {
  def init = ...
  def inject = ... 
  def start = ...
  def notify = ...
  def stop = ...

These life cycle hooks except onInject will be called only once when the binding type is singleton.

Eager Initialization of Singletons for Production

In production, initializing singletons (by calling onStart) is preferred. To use production mode, use Design.withProductionMode:

// All singletons defined in the design will be initialized (i.e., onInit/onInject/onStart hooks will be called) 
  .build[X]{ x =>
    // Do something with X

Suppress Life Cycle Logging

If you don’t need to show Session start/terminate logs, use Design.noLifeCycleLogging:

  .build[X]{ x => ... }

This will show lifecycle event logs only in debug level logs.

Annotation-based life cycle hooks

Airframe also supports JSR-250 style shutdown hooks via @PostConstruct and @PreDestroy annotations:

import javax.annotation.{PostConstruct, PreDestroy}

trait MyService {
  def init {
    // Called when the object is initialized. The same behavior with onInit
  def stop {
    // Called when session.shutdown is called. The same with onShutdown. 

These annotation are not supported in Scala.js, because it has no run-time reflection to read annotations in a class.

Child Sessions

If you need to override a part of the design in a short term, you can use child sessions. Child sessions are useful for managing request-scoped sessions (e.g., HTTP requests, database query contexts, etc.).

Usage Example

import wvlet.airframe._

trait MyServer {
  private val session = bind[Session]   // Bind the current session

  def handleInChildSession = {
    // Define a child session specific design
    val childDesign =

    // Creates a new child session
    session.withChildSession(childDesign) { childSession =>
      childSession.build[X] { x =>

// Creates a parent session
newDesign.build[MyServer] { server =>
   // Creates a short-lifecycle child session

When building an object X in a child session, it will follow these rules:

  • If X is defined in the child design, the child session will be used for X.
  • If X is not defined in the child design, Airframe tries to find a design for X in the parent (or an ancestor) session (owner session).
  • If X involves internal objects that are defined in a parent (e.g., P1) or an ancestor (e.g., A1), their owner sessions will be used for instantiating P1 and A1.
  • Lifecycle hooks for X will be registered to the owner sessions of the target objects. For example, if X is already started (onStart is called) in the parent session (= owner session), this hook will not be called again in the child session.

What’s Next