airframe-surface enables reading type information, such as:

  • Constructor parameter names and their types
  • Methods defined in an object with method argument names and types.


Maven Central Scaladoc


libraryDependencies += "org.wvlet.airframe" %% "airframe-surface" % "(version)"

// For Scala.js
libraryDependencies += "org.wvlet.airframe" %%% "airframe-surface" % "(version)"
  • Surface.of[X] returns parameters,
  • MethodSurface.of[X] returns the list of methods in X and their parameter names and types.
  • airframe-surface is compatible between Scala and Scala.js

Applications of Surface include:

  • Writing object serializer / deserializer without any boilerplates.
    • For example, airframe-codec Automatically generates code serialiation and deserizliation using Surface.
  • Dependency injection based on object shapes (e.g., Airframe DI)
    • airframe-di detects dependent types using Surface
  • Surface can be an indentifer of object types and type aliases.

Initial design note: Surface Design Document


import wvlet.airframe.surface.Surface

case class A(id:Int, name:String)

val s = Surface.of[A]
println(s.toString) // This will show A(id:Int, name:String)

// Find object parameters
s.params.mkString(", ") // Returns "id:Int, name:String"

// Object factory{ f =>
  f.newInstance(Seq(1, "leo"))
// Some(A(1, "leo"))

Type alias

type UserName = String

Surface.of[UserName] //  Returns UserName:=String

Tagged Type

To have different surfaces for the same type, you can use tagged type (@@):

import wvlet.airframe.surface.Surface
import wvlet.airframe.surface.tag._

class Fruit
trait Apple
trait Banana

Surface.of[Fruit @@ Apple]
Surface.of[Fruit @@ Banana]

Runtime Annotation

Reading runtime-annotation is supported for JVM projects. Import wvlet.airframe.surface.reflect._ to use this feature.

import wvlet.airframe.surface.Surface
import wvlet.airframe.surface.reflect._
import javax.annotation.Resource
@Resource(name="my resource")
class A(@Resource(name = "param 1") a:String)

val s = Surface.of[A]
// Reading class annotation
val a = s.findAnnotationOf[Resource] // "my resource"

// Reading parameter annotation
val r = s.params.find( == "a").findAnnotationOf[Resource] // "param 1"